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Saturday, 13 April 2013

أدوار المعلم في ظل التعليم الإلكتروني

 Teaching in a Technology based environment

Faculty role remains important........
Article extracted from  AL-SHARQ AL AWSAT newspaper  

أدوار المعلملأستاذ في ظل التعليم الإلكتروني
 

قد يتبادر إلى ذهن من يقرأ عنوان الموضوع أننا بإدخال تقنية الحاسب والتعليم الإلكتروني نلغي دور المعلم في العملية التربوية التعليمية. فالتعليم الإلكتروني لا يعني إلغاء دور المعلم بل يصبح دوره أكثر أهمية وأكثر صعوبة فهو شخص مبدع ذو كفاءة عالية يدير العملية التعليمية باقتدار ويعمل على تحقيق طموحات التقدم والتقنية. لقد أصبحت مهنة المعلم مزيجـًا من مهام القائد ومدير المشروع البحثي والناقد والموجه .
لا يعني التعلم الإلكتروني إلغاء دور المعلم بل يصبح دوره أكثر أهمية وأكثر صعوبة، حيث يصبح شخص مبدع ذو كفاءة عالية يدير العملية التعليمية باقتدار ويعمل على تحقيق طموحات التقدم والتقنية.
ويمكن ذكر الأدوار التي يقوم بها المعلم في نظم التعليم الإلكتروني كما جاء في بعض الأدبيات:
ما لاشك فيه أن دور المعلم سوف يبقى للأبد وسوف يصبح أكثر صعوبة من السابق, فالتعلم الإلكتروني لا يعني تصفح الإنترنت بطريقة مفتوحة ولكن بطريقة محددة وبتوجيه لاستخدام المعلومات الإلكترونية، وهذا يعتبر من أهم أدوار المعلم. ولكي يصبح دور المعلم مهماً في توجيه طلابه الوجهة الصحيحة للاستفادة القصوى من التكنولوجيا عليه أن يقوم بالأدوار التالية:

ميسر للعمليات : Process Facilitator
إن الدور الأكبر للمعلم من خلال نظم تقديم المقررات التعليمية عبر الإنترنت هو التحقق من حدوث بعض العمليات التربوية المستهدفة في أثناء ممارسة الطلاب لنشاطهم وتفاعلهم مع بعضهم البعض، فالمعلم في نظم التعلم الإلكتروني ليس ملقنًا للمعلومات بل هو ميسر للعملية التعليمية Educational Facilitator، حيث يقدم الإرشادات ويتيح للمتعلمين اكتشاف مواد التعلم بأنفسهم دون أن يتدخل في مسار تعلمهم.

2ـ مبسط للمحتوى: Content Facilitator
للمعلم دور معرفي, ولكن طبيعة هذا الدور المعرفي تختلف عما كانت عليه في الماضي, بحيث يكون التركيز على إكساب الطالب المعارف والحقائق والمفاهيم المناسبة للتدفق المعرفي المستمر للعلم, وما يرتبط من هذه المعارف من مهارات عملية وقيم واتجاهات بحيث تمكنهم من التعامل الصحيح مع هذا التدفق المعرفي والتقنيات المرتبطة به, لأن هذا يعين هؤلاء الطلاب على فهم الحاضر بتفصيلاته, وتصور المستقبل باتجاهاته والمشاركة في صناعته, وبذلك يتم إكساب الطلاب ثقافة معلوماتية تمكنهم من التعايش في مجتمع المعلوماتية الذي هو مجتمع المستقبل.

3ـ باحث Researcher :
لا يكفي قيام المعلم باتخاذ قرارات, بل عليه تقويم جهده أيضاً, والبحث الإجرائي وسيلة تحقق هذه الغاية, كما أنه يتيح الفرصة للمعلم لاكتساب المعرفة والمهارة في طرق البحث ومنهجيته, ويكون على دراية بالاختيارات واحتمالات التغيير, كما يكسبه الرؤية التأملية والناقدة لأدائه, ولعملية التدريس في كليتها.
وهذا التوجه للبحث الإجرائي يعتبر من أفضل فرص النمو المهني المنظمة والمنهجية, فالتدريس عبر الشبكات لا يخلو من مشكلات, وبالتالي عندما يسعى المعلم تلقائياً لبحث المشكلة, بغية الوقوف على أسبابها ونتائجها متبعًا المنهجية العلمية في دراستها, فإن ذلك يعود بالنفع عليه أولاً, وعلى عملية التعليم برمتها, التي تتطلب تطويراً مستمراً, نتيجة التطور المستمر للظروف المحيطة بها.

5ـ تكنولوجي: Technologist
مع التطورات التي شهدها مجال التكنولوجيا, فإن الدور التقليدي للمعلم يجب أن ينتهي أو يتغير, فهناك وفرة في المعلومات, ودور المعلم في ظل هذه الوفرة هو مساعدة المتعلمين على الإبحار في محيط المعلومات, لاختيار الأنسب, والتحليل الناقد, وتضمينه في رؤيتهم وإدراكهم للعالم من حولهم.
والتكنولوجيا تسهم في تغيير الطرق التي يتدرب من خلالها المعلمون, وكذلك طرق تعليم الطلاب, والمطلوب عمله هو القيام بدور فاعل من جانب القائمين على إعداد المعلم لإحداث هذا التغير.


6ـ مصمم للخبرات التعليمية:
للمعلم دور أساسي في تصميم الخبرات التعليمية والنشاطات التربوية، والإشراف على بعضها بما يتناسب مع خبراته وميوله واهتماماته، فهذه الأنشطة مكملة لما يكتسبه الطالب داخل قاعات الدراسات الصفية أو الافتراضية، سواء أكانت أنشطة ثقافية أم رياضية أم اجتماعية إلى غير ذلك من الأنشطة التربوية، وعلى المعلم أن يسهم بدور إيجابي في الإشراف على بعض تلك النشاطات.

7ـ مدير للعملية التعليمية:
في التعليم التقليدي يمارس المعلم دوره في ضبط نظام الصف والإمساك بزمام الأمور في كل ما يحدث داخل الصف، أما في نظم التعلم الإلكتروني فالمعلم مديرا للعملية التعليمية بأكملها، حيث يحدد أعداد الملتحقين بالمقررات الشبكية، ومواعيد اللقاءات الافتراضية على الشبكة، وأساليب عرض المحتوى، وطرق التقويم وغيره من عناصر العملية التعليمية.
والمعلم الذي يقوم بدوره القيادي في الفصول الافتراضية يجعل منها خلية عمل بفاعلية واقتدار، سواء كان ذلك على المستوى الفردي أو الجماعي، فيكرس اهتمامات الطلاب لتحقيق الأهداف المنشودة، ويأخذ بيدهم طيلة الوقت للعمل الجاد المثمر.

8ـ ناصح ومستشار:
من أهم الأدوار التي يقوم بها المعلم هو تقديم النصح والمشورة للمتعلمين، وعليه أن يكون ذا صلة دائمة و مستمرة ومتجددة مع كل جديد في مجال تخصصه، وفي طرائق تدريسه وما يطرأ على مجتمعه من مستجدات، فعليه أن يظل طالباً للعلم ما استطاع، مطلعاً على كل ما يدور في مجتمعه المحلي والعالمي من مستحدثات، حتى يستطيع أن يلبي احتياجات طلبته واستفساراتهم المختلفة، ويقدم لهم المشورة فيما يصعب عليهم، ويأخذ بيدهم إلى نور العلم والمعرفة.

منقول من جريدة الشرق الأوسط

https://sites.google.com/site/modernteachingstrategies/the-roles-of-the-teacher-in-e-learning

Learn how to process your translation and revision work critically and constructively

My new upcoming online training course (short course) ....!
To be facilitated on Proz.com.

Here is the course description:

Description
Experienced translators may do their translations intuitively and quickly than a novice or student translator. However, it is not often that translators may find the appropriate jargon and words to use to justify their choices or write conscious and justified comments in their revised or translated assignments? A professional (translator or reviser) may be asked by clients or colleagues at work to do so. Hence, it seems a valid point to add the critical thinking issue to translator competence.

Besides, having that ability may enhance professional status and earn you respect since you become a thinker as well as negotiator and text engineer. This course will take you to that stage and guide you through to think critically when you process your translation, do post-editing or revision work.


Learning objectives

At the end of this course students/participants will be able to :

Identify and judge critically the text typologies in English and Arabic and problems that may arise in the translation process due to conventions of those texts and other contextual factors in both languages;
Write in the proper genre and style of the text you translate into;
Justify your choices in translating the text (for yourself and for others if you were asked to). Your choice remains relative, since nothing is absolute in the real world. This means that there are always many answers to the same problem...
Revise consciously and constructively the translations or assignments you have been given based on insights from both theory and practice.


The link to the course/workshop..

http://www.proz.com/translator-training/course/2929-learn_how_to_process_your_translation_and_revision_work_critically_and_constructively

Friday, 12 April 2013

Focus on developing the human capacities and competencies in a translation programme

''The Human factor''  in a Translation program

Focus on the developing human capacities and competencies in a translation program


Is enhancing translation linguistic and  skills enough for a quality based translation curriculum?
What employers want from a graduate translator?

A recent research study carried out here in Canada (Université de Montreal) by Echeverri (2008), highlighted that translation companies or government organisations employing - under the internship scheme- translation students are very satisfied with the linguistic and other text based skills, but luck critical aptitudes, reflection as well as interpersonal abilities.

So, if we want to take these results and we try to review our programs, what elements should we improve?

From our research findings we noticed that most of the time attention is given to the ' objects' (contents, curriculum, courses) but not the ' human factor' (Faculty, students). For instance, there is ample literature that begs for the need to set a faculty development and training scheme(Echeverri 2008, Kelly 2005, Kearns 2006) since the type of knowledge framework that is needed inside a translation classroom differ in a way form the one delivered or discussed in a language classroom. Also, understanding 'how students of translation learn and what their learning styles are' is very important. We need to find out about students' prior knowledge about translation as a profession, practise or ' art' as some would look at it. The study plan could help us in covering this latter point, provided that it is clear, explicit and accessible by students. Also, it needs to be explained in front of students to engage them and give them a road map for their learning path. University students are adults. Educating adults require certain tact from the part of the educator.

Last you cannot teach well a translation course if  you need further training on : Pedagogy, content (Translation specific content) and real world experience knowledge bases.These three poles need to be integrated in order to reflect a translation proper educational or training scenario in a Higher Education context.

So, the 'Human Factor' rather than focusing on the content or subject matter is, to my view,  of great importance to enhance quality in translator training programs.


I welcome your thoughts on that.

fouadelkarnichi@gmail.com

Friday, 5 April 2013

Sultan Qaboos Unievrsity's 10th forum on Translation : 6th and 7th April, 2013.



Accepted communication


 (Forum organized by the English and Translation Society at Sultan Qaboos University)


ABSTRACT
Innovating in translator training: A pilot course proposal on developing professional and entrepreneurial abilities for future translators


Globalization and technology had changed the translation market upside down. We notice the emergence of many working patterns due to this change; such as the phenomenon of tele- work or online freelancing and self-employment. This practice requires a combination of both academic and business competencies. Nevertheless, as far as I know, the entrepreneurial aspect of our practice is not something that is taught within university level translation units or departments in the Arab world. Only few translation programs in the west and Europe managed to embed such type of courses as workshops or ‘elective’ course (and not as a core course), despite the fact that it is the type of competencies that employers insist on in the market place.
Our recent review of many translation programs in the Arab world does not contain courses or modules that address these types of new practices. The focus is always on developping linguistic skills and other types of cognitive abilities. In this intervention, I will introduce an innovative way of how to embed such a course in a translation program and the pedagogical approach to adopt to facilitate such a course on training students to engage in online freelancing and empower them to gain these types of meta-cognitive competencies that will accompany them for a lifetime, such as the case of setting up their own business as a team of students (an agency or company) or as an individually owned business.


NB: Due to logistical reasons, I put on hold the preparation of this communication and prepare it (perhaps ) in another context/ other type of audience.

Fouad

Thursday, 4 April 2013

What type of research methdologies we need in applied translation studies ( e.g Translator Training)?


Participatory Action Research for translator trainers: A solution to consider!


As part of my PhD programme, we have been working this last semester on Qualitative Research Methodologies in Education. Through in-class seminar discussions with my cohort doctoral students, we had the chance to discuss various types of methods and approaches to a research object. Mainstream translation studies focused heavily on sociological, literary, linguistic and cognitive aspects of translation, and proposed various types of research types extracted from the field of social sciences : Mostly the positivist and 'scientific' methods whereby the purpose of research is to produce knowledge by ' the knowers' on the practitioners : teachers, translation practitioners..etc. This led to the widening of the gap between theory (detached scholars) and the practitioners (teachers/ practicing translators).

Such research models in translation studies can be listed as follows : Linguistic Model( Catford, Nida, Vinay, Newmark, Holmes); Communicative models( Neubert); Cultural models( Steiner, Venuti, Pym , Snell Hornby); Hermeneutic models( Ricoeur); functionalist ( Reiss, vermeer, Nord, chesterman); psycholinguistic models( Krings, bell); textual models( Neubert, shreve, House)..ect (Cravo,2007, p.5).

In Translation pedagogy, we would rather centralize our focus on the actors in the ground : the teacher or faculty. There is no need for the researcher ( Linguist, Researcher in sociology or cognitive psychology to TELL the teacher/faculty or even the practitioner (the artisan) how to approach his class or do translation). I believe in the capacity of the Teacher/Faculty to understand better his or her students' learning needs and interpret their ways of learning and act upon that accordingly (In collaboration with the students themselves who need to be considered as partners in the learning curve rather than passive absorbers of knowledge). Hence, I find it very crucial to introduce the notion of The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning enquiry (Schulmann, 1986; Hutchings 1999) as a method of enhancing the culture of CLASSROOM PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH  to cure a long standing plague we have been suffering from in the translation classroom. Teachers need to improve their practice via engaging in researching their own classroom practice via reflecting on their practise (Schon, 1983). This critical approach would lead teachers to : 1 )  reflect critically on the  type of knowledge they disseminate in a translation classroom; 2) and re-examine the type of teaching approach they use. 

For this to happen, there is a need for faculty to undertake  further pedagogical/disciplinary training . Training not in the sense of a course or workshop , but using video recording to record their classroom interventions and then exchange the film with peer (trained peers) to get feedback. Also, participating in one of the colleague's classroom activity as observer is also desirable ( participatory observation as a research technique). Hence, I still believe that the big divide that exists in many translation courses whereby we find faculties having different ideologies on how to manage and design a course in translation (theoretical or practical)could be resolved if faculty engage in collaborative and participatory type of scholarship of teaching and learning Inquiry whereby they act as both professional teachers and researchers....! 

Teachers who embark on teaching translation come from various backgrounds, and yet the question remains how many of them were trained on teaching translation contents, skills and competencies? (Cravo, 2007). The way I see it is that translation is a profession and its teaching approaches and methods should be fledged with the ways professionals are trained (use  active pedagogies, coaching, AND less didactics and lecturing).

This is what is called in the literature by the method of PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH . It was Stephen Corey (1953) who introduced the term in Education, and Stenhouse (1975) did embed it with Teacher Training. In the field  of Translation Studies , we have few authors who referred to this technique :

Regarding Action research initiative in Arabic-English Translation literature, we may mention Basil Hatim (2001), who stipulated that research should not be made on practitioners (teachers/ translators) but by practitioners themselves. Other researchers and scholars in translation  have similarly  argued the point that AR (Action research ) is key towards enhancing translator education as main core field of research and enquiry , such as (Cravo, 2007,  p.11) who stipulates that : '' 

''A GOOD START WOULD BE TO  HAVE TRANSLATION TEACHERS WITH KNOWLEDGE OF AR WORKING TOGETHER AND GETTING INVOLVED IN CLASSROOM RESEARCH ''

In my research, I am working on enhancing this method in a technology based environment (online learning-teaching). This environments may yield promising results and outcomes for the AR led by translation teachers in the context of higher education. The online environment is student based and focuses on creating significant learning outcomes ( in the context of Higher Education) via creating learning communities. This requires, a very active and collaborative type of intervention on the part of faculty...More facilitating and monitoring activities than teaching.

Fouad

My first participation into a TRANSLATOR TRAINING CONFERENCE using the French Language !!

Conference will be held on 8th Mai, 2013 @ the Université Laval (Quebec-Canada). 


 

On the 8th of Mai, 2013, I will be giving my first communication in FRENCH at the ACFAS conference here in Quebec (Université Laval). It is compulsory to : speak in French and present the text in the French Language. I am a bit nervous, but hey! It should be fun.

The topic I will be presenting is quite new in the field of translation teaching/training, although it has been discussed in other fields such as educational technology, distance e-learning and e-learning. It is about the migration of TRANSLATION courses' contents given by faculty in face to face classrooms into an on-line environment ( Moodle, Blackboard..etc). Research literature highlights that teaching practise in both traditional and virtual or technology enhanced environments has some similarities BUT many differences in terms of teaching approaches, technics and choice of material to address students with various learning styles and characteristics. What I will present in the conference is the conceptual part of this pedagogical operation : DESIGNING YOUR COURSE OUTLINE with clear INTENDED  learning outcomes, type of activities to operationalize these activities in collaboration with students and (last) the type of planned assessment designed by faculty to measure those intended outcomes. I will be relting in Blooms's revised taxonomy (Anderson, 2001) version,a s well as John Biggs' (1999, 2007)taxonomy of Constructive ALignment between intended learning outcomes, activities and assessments components.

All the above will be applied to the field of translator training in a university context (Higher education). I will use a Course Outline of a Translation Course called (documentary research in translation practise) given by a professor at one of the Canadian universities. I have been granted approval to use his course outline(syllabus).
*****************************************

HERE IS MY ABSTRACT (IN FRENCH)


13 h 30 - 16 h 00
Après-midi
Communications orales
Présidence/animation : Marie-christine Aubin Université York
Bâtiment – Local : Pavillon Charles-de Koninck – 1261

13 h 30
Fouad EL KARNICHI Université de Sherbrooke, FOUAD EL KARNICHI Université de Sherbrooke
Que nous apprend la conversion d’un cours en mode virtuel sur la pédagogie de la traduction?
(le résumé)
L’environnement des cours en ligne nécessite des compétences spécifiques et novatrices afin de fournir des conditions d’apprentissage significatives pour l’apprenant. Dans cette communication, en lien avec notre recherche doctorale, nous allons aborder la formation dans un environnement d’apprentissage en ligne des futurs traducteurs, en prenant l’exemple d’une formation donnée en présentiel et à distance. Plus précisément, nous allons examiner, à partir d’un syllabus, les changements au niveau pédagogique et structurel qui peuvent être effectuées pendant la migration d’un cours de sa version en présentiel en une version en ligne. Des recherches en formation en ligne nous indiquent les conséquences négatives issues de la conversion des cours d’un mode à l’autre lorsqu’on n’introduit pas de changements pédagogiques dignes du nouvel environnement d'apprentissage. Nous proposerons une analyse des objectifs du cours, des activités d’apprentissage et des mesures d’évaluation dans le plan de cours, qui sera effectuée selon le principe de l’ « alignement constructif » de Biggs (2007). Nous utiliserons aussi la taxonomie de Bloom dans sa version nouvelle publiée par Krathwohl et Anderson (2001) pour traiter des types d’apprentissages ciblés (comprendre, appliquer, évaluer, créer). Notre intention est d’adapter ces critères au contexte de formation des traducteurs dans un environnement en ligne et de présenter nos premières conclusions sur la conversion des cours en mode virtuel.

Fouad

Wednesday, 3 April 2013

Internship for translators....another brilliant extracurricular activity to count on!

About the internship programme as Sherbrooke University .

As part of my ongoing research activities, I visited three days ago the person in charge of placing student translators into various places in Quebec region and elsewhere ( in Canada) to gain experience and build their self concept as well as competences as future professionals. I was amazed at the way the translation industry has changed in Canada due to Globalisation and impact form technology (mainly the Internet).

In Canada, the employer No1 is the Translation Bureau (The government) due to the fact that ALL documents should be in both French and English. So, the entity did not only offer internship for students, but also : 1- recruit them ; 2- and give financial support for universities to maintain the translation programs. Recently, according to the man in charge of the SERVICES de PLACEMENT (placement services), the governments reduced the budget. Why? well! they went global as well. They started outsourcing their work to countries where translation is done cheaper...and with Quality as well ( North African francophone countries, for instance). This had obliged the internship service in all universities in Canada to seek placements for their students elsewhere (the Private sector). Here, they found another problem ! ...difficulty to find a place, especially if the internship is PAID. In Canada students get paid for their internship. For small translation agencies, this would be an overhead. So, things could not be easy as they were with the internship process with the Federal Bureau of Translation.

This means that translation programs need to be conscious of this shift and develop new contents, teaching and training methodologies and pedagogies to respond to that....BUT gradually! not too slow though!...I am aware that as long as translation is taught within a university context, it will always be behind in catching up with the industry...This is quite understood!

For sure, matching our pedagogies and course contents to respond to new working patterns in the market of translation will always be a concern for faculty....especially with the technological impact and changing working patterns in language industry (Translation, interpreting , revision...etc). It is crucial to shift our attention to develop human resources and competencies (teacher development scheme) to cope with ( in our proper rhythm as academics as well as professionals) the ongoing practises....as long as these practises are not only market bound but also EDUCATIONALLY sound...because, we are, before anything else an educational institution that empowers and builds human capacities to serve a SOCIAL PURPOSE a well as.

Fouad


My first day within a translation classroom in Canada (Université Laval- Quebec).

Lat week at the Department of translation of Université Laval (Quebec)....
Finally, my co-director invited me last Thursday to attend her class (Revision & proofreading) with her MA students. This time there was no lectures, but 5 student-led extracurricular research activities about the practise of revision and proofreading in the job market. Students carried out either telephone or on site interviews with translators/revisers working in various translation agencies/companies in Quebec/Canada. Very innovative move on the part of faculty.

To be honest, I thoroughly enjoyed the 3 hrs I spent in the classroom interacting with the students and exchanging knowledge / information that is crucial to students development and building of 'self concept' as per Kiraly( 1995, 2000). There were about 11 students, all mature , some of them married with kids..so they were taking their studies (translation and revision ) seriously.

As a researcher, practitioner as well as an educator in the field, I realised how important can an extracular (especially if it is really related to the professional world of translation) be for an aspiring translation trainee...On a pedagogical level, it empowers students potential and maintains students' confidence to persevere in their learning pathways, finalise their course and achieve significant learning and performance outcomes.....and when they are in the market, they will be embasssadors of a discipline that suffers from an IDENTITY CRISIS and that it needs new leaders and voices to regain its resepct and status.

In the Arab world, we need these type of practises. I know that contexts (social, political and economical) are not the same, but I am quite sure that there will be a way to do it with either BA or MA students in translation . Certainly , we need to review our ways of training future translators and learn from other practises- and see how they can be doable in our context of teaching ( socio-economic, institutional ). The focus will be always on identifying&understanding students characteristics and how they learn  !. If we find this formula , we may ensure that they will achieve durable and significant learning onnot only during their study time but BEYOND!.

Fouad