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Thursday, 2 March 2017

عصور الظلام في أوروبا و النور في الشرق في عشر دقائق



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Dark Ages, time for light | عصور الظلام أزمنة للنور



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Three types of curriculum practices/cultures

Curriculum practices at a university level have been a replica of many traditional curriculum development paradigms at the primary and secondary school level; especially the rational or theory-based approach. In the latter, the main focus is content and academic knowledge with either an average or marginal implementation of vocationally or professionally oriented types of practices ( contents and competencies).

In the context of higher education in the Gulf or Arab region ( North Africa/Morocco, for example), this traditional approach has become a standard practice ( Atari, 2012; Gabr, 2001, 2007).

The three predominant types of curriculum practices in the field of curriculum development are the declared curriculum, the hidden curriculum, and operational curriculum.The first is related to the official and announced curriculum institution ( what is on the paper and usually done by a committee that do not undertake exploratory experimental research to make decisions on the curriculum or pedagogical choices); the second concerns the internal departmental politics vis-a-vis certain tracks or programs and their constituents ( contents, courses, and faculty), the last is the real type of curriculum that is actually taking place in the department or college at large.

Nowadays, curriculum approaches, even in university and academic environment, rely fully or relatively on the competency-model instead. Competencies ( Integrate set of knowledge, skills, and behaviors) are first and for most. Competences first, then contents and textbooks if available. If not, competent faculty need to use their pedagogical skills to design appropriate learning and teaching environments for the newly chosen contents. This model responds to nationwide visions of linking outcomes with the job and provides sustainable outcomes and performances. Nevertheless, it is a an arduous and time-consuming process. Still, its practical and responsiveness to international accreditation standards and requirecannotan not be denied.